Tutoring and Curriculum Development for Remote Biology Jobs

Biology Remote Jobs

If you have a passion for science, you may be interested in working as a biology remote worker. This type of job can offer a variety of benefits, including flexible work hours and an excellent salary.

Tutor students in AP biology and other life sciences subjects remotely. Create curricular materials and classroom activities. Maintain accurate and detailed laboratory records.

Education Requirements

Many biology remote jobs require a bachelor’s degree in the field of biology. Some of these positions may also need specialized training or certifications to meet regulatory requirements. Fortunately, there are many schools that offer online bachelor’s degrees in biology to help students get started with their careers. These schools are easy to get into and have high acceptance rates.

Some biology jobs involve interacting with animals or plants in the wild, while others are more office-based. These jobs usually involve a variety of administrative tasks, including data analysis, mapping, and organizational skills. Marine biologists, for example, often travel around the world to conduct research and gather information about different species. However, they also spend a significant amount of time in the office analyzing data and communicating with colleagues.

Work Environment

The work environment for biology remote jobs is diverse and can vary from office-based to field-based. Some of the most common fields include medical science, bioinformatics, and computational biology. Medical scientists often work with human diseases and use laboratory equipment to conduct tests and observe patients. They may also design devices to improve health outcomes for individuals. Medical scientists typically work for research and development companies in the physical, engineering, and life sciences industries.

Other fields for biology remote jobs include zoology and wildlife conservation. These professionals may need to travel and camp in outdoor environments. This can be a great option for those who are interested in working with animals.

A career in wildlife biology is not for everyone, but it is a growing field. This type of job has seen a doubling of employment in the last 10 years, well above the national average (Cushman and Wakefield, 2022). The work is varied and can involve monitoring and protecting beach-nesting birds.


Depending on their area of expertise and the level of education they have earned, a biology major can earn up to $70,000 a year. These professionals typically work in laboratories or on outdoor research projects. They may also work with human patients as they design instruments and medical devices.

Biologists can find jobs in many fields, including zoology, forestry, conservation, and research. Wildlife biologists often focus on preserving ecosystems in forests and natural areas. They also manage the overall land quality of parks and other natural areas. Foresters oversee forestry activities to ensure the quality of natural resources.

Other popular positions for biology majors include biomedical engineers, who work with medical experts to develop cutting-edge instruments and devices. These professionals often work in labs, but some work outside to observe medical procedures. They can also work in manufacturing companies, especially those in the physical, engineering, and life sciences sectors. These positions can be lucrative and offer excellent career advancement opportunities.


Whether you are interested in conservation, genetics, or plant and animal behavior, there are many options for biology jobs. The field is broad and has a variety of benefits, including competitive salaries and excellent job security. Some of these jobs can even be done from home!

Biology majors can also find work in other fields, such as computer science. This type of position involves using complex computer algorithms to study biological systems. This field is growing rapidly and offers many benefits, including great salary potential.

For a remote job in this field, you must be able to maintain accurate and detailed laboratory records. This includes keeping up with scientific literature and advancements in oligonucleotide technology. You must also be able to communicate results to team members. You will be working in a fast-paced environment, and must be comfortable with changing priorities and timelines. Lastly, you must be able to solve problems quickly and effectively.

Follow the link for additional information

Continue Reading...

The Ultimate 카지노게임사이트: A Tapestry of Games, Security, and Support

Finding the Ultimate 카지노게임사이트 Experience

The hunt for the perfect 카지노게임사이트 can be akin to searching for a hidden gem. It’s about finding that one site where the clinking of virtual coins, the bright flashing lights, and the thrill of the win coalesce into an invigorating symphony of entertainment. In the vast ocean of online gaming, where do you cast your net to reel in that one site that promises not just games, but an adventure?

For starters, the ideal 카지노게임사이트 is more than just a platform; it’s a world. A world where each click transports you to virtual Vegas, immersing you in an experience so vivid, you can almost hear the rustle of cards and the cheerful banter of fellow players. Imagine a place where reality blurs into a playground of possibility and probability.

The cornerstone of this digital haven is its selection of games. A diverse array of choices is crucial, be it slots that spin tales of mythology or table games that test your mettle against the odds. Roulette wheels whirl with anticipation while poker hands deal destiny. Each game is a doorway to a potential jackpot, a story waiting to unfold.

Let’s talk safety and fairness. A commendable 카지노게임사이트 operates like a fortress. It shields its patrons with the latest encryption technology, ensuring that every transaction and personal detail is fortified against the prying eyes of cyberspace predators. Fair play is the site’s creed, with random number generators acting as impartial arbiters of chance, guaranteeing a clean game.

But what about the helping hand? A top-tier site doesn’t just leave you adrift in the sea of chance. It offers guides, strategies, and tips, turning novices into adepts. And when the unexpected occurs, a competent support team is the lighthouse guiding you back to safe shores with responsive and helpful advice.

Now, imagine experiencing all of this in your mother tongue, the comfort of familiarity paired with the thrill of the game. That’s the mark of a site that doesn’t just welcome you – it understands you.

As the crescendo of our exploration reaches its peak, we acknowledge that the journey is as important as the destination. A 카지노게임사이트 is not a mere arcade but a saga written in luck and skill, where you are the protagonist.

In conclusion, the ultimate 카지노게임사이트 is a tapestry of games, security, support, and cultural connection. It’s an ecosystem that thrives on the joy of its players, a domain where every click can lead to fortune’s favor.


1. What should I look for in a 카지노게임사이트?
Look for a diverse selection of games, robust security measures, fair play practices, and responsive customer support. Also, check for language support and user-friendly interfaces.

2. How do I know if a 카지노게임사이트 is fair?
A fair site uses random number generators for all games to ensure unbiased outcomes, and it should be audited by independent third-party organizations.

3. Can I play 카지노게임사이트 games on my mobile device?
Most modern sites are optimized for mobile play, allowing you to enjoy games on smartphones and tablets.

4. Are there strategies for winning at 카지노게임사이트 games?
While luck is a significant factor, familiarizing yourself with the rules and employing basic strategies can improve your chances of winning.

5. Is it safe to share personal information on a 카지노게임사이트?
As long as you’re playing at a site with robust encryption technology and privacy policies in place, it is generally safe to share personal information. Always ensure the site is reputable and has positive reviews.…

Continue Reading...

The Quest for a Remarkable Major Playground: Exploring the Essence of 메이저놀이터

In today’s fast-moving world, finding a reliable 메이저놀이터, or major playground, for your leisure and entertainment needs can be quite the quest. As we delve into this fascinating realm, let’s discover what makes a great 메이저놀이터 stand out from the rest.

Imagine stepping into an oasis where the buzz of life melts away, and you’re met with a symphony of sounds from those participating in the vivacious activities around you. This is what a 메이저놀이터 symbolizes in the heart of Korean culture – a hub for social interaction, relaxation, and a haven for those seeking a break from their routine.

But why do people gravitate toward such places? Simply put, we all yearn for a slice of excitement, an escape from the mundane. 메이저놀이터 are engineered to feed this desire with their sprawling spaces that offer a myriad of experiences – from sports facilities to cultural events, and sometimes even delectable food options. These places are meticulously crafted to cater to all age groups, ensuring that whether you’re a child or an adult, there’s something captivating for you.

The art of creating the perfect 메이저놀이터 lies in its ability to merge tradition with modernity. The ambiance radiates a sense of nostalgic charm while incorporating the latest trends in leisure and safety standards. This blend ensures that while you’re having the time of your life, you’re also in a secure environment where the focus is on fun, without any lurking worries.

Venture into one of these major playgrounds and you’ll notice the attention to detail—from the thoughtful layout that maximizes space usage to the joy reflected in the bright, inviting colors. You cannot help but be drawn to the infectious laughter and the sense of community these places foster. In a 메이저놀이터, every corner is a new opportunity for joy and connection.

What’s truly remarkable about these places is how they manage to stand as a testament to technological advancements while retaining their core – the undiluted joy of simple play. They serve as a bridge between generations, where stories are created and shared, where life’s moments are celebrated collectively.

As we wrap up this exploration of the 메이저놀이터 concept, let’s take away the essence of what they represent – unity, happiness, and the unwavering spirit of play. Now, let’s address some frequently asked questions to provide deeper insights into the world of 메이저놀이터.


1. What age groups are 메이저놀이터 suitable for?
메이저놀이터 are typically designed to cater to various age groups, providing different sections and activities that are suitable for children, teenagers, and adults.

2. How do 메이저놀이터 ensure safety?
Safety at 메이저놀이터 is paramount. These sites often undergo regular maintenance checks, have safety certifications for equipment, and are monitored to ensure a secure environment for everyone.

3. Are 메이저놀이터 accessible year-round?
The accessibility of 메이저놀이터 can vary depending on their location and the amenities they offer. Some may be open all year, while others may be seasonal or affected by weather conditions.

4. What types of activities can I find at a 메이저놀이터?
A 메이저놀이터 can include a variety of activities such as sports courts, playground equipment, cultural performances, and sometimes even educational workshops.

5. Is there an entry fee for 메이저놀이터?
This depends on the individual 메이저놀이터. Some may be free to enter with pay-per-use facilities, while others might charge an entry fee that covers all or most activities within the playground.…

Continue Reading...

Unveiling the Thrill: The Enchanting World of Evolution Powerball

Diving headfirst into the enigmatic world of online gaming, one can’t help but be drawn to the allure of 에볼루션 파워볼, or as it’s widely recognized, Evolution Powerball. This thrilling game has captured the hearts of countless players, seeking the rush of adrenaline that comes with the potential of significant winnings. But what is it about this game that has the gaming community so captivated?

At its core, Evolution Powerball is a blend of traditional lottery-style number picking mixed with state-of-the-art technology. It’s a game that’s easily accessible yet challenging enough to keep you coming back for more. You select numbers, wait with bated breath for the live draw, and hope that luck is on your side. It’s this simplicity, paired with the chance of turning fortunes on a dime, that enchants players.

However, the excitement doesn’t just end there. Evolution Powerball isn’t your grandfather’s lottery game; it’s been set ablaze with modern twists. With live dealers, interactive features, and a sleek interface, it transcends beyond mere number draws—it’s an immersive experience. Players aren’t just passive observers; they’re part of a dynamic environment, one where every draw is a spectacle, every win a celebration.

But let’s zoom out for a second. Why should you, a discerning player with a wide array of gaming options at your fingertips, choose 에볼루션 파워볼? For starters, it is not merely a game of chance. It challenges you to think, strategize, and make calculated risks. And unlike traditional lotteries with their static routine, Evolution Powerball enthralls with its dynamic pace, ensuring you’re never bored.

Now, imagine you’ve entered this arena. Numbers have been chosen, the draw is underway, and hearts are racing. With each number announced, some dreams are made, others deferred, and the cycle continues. The draw concludes, and for some, life will never be the same. That’s the potency of Evolution Powerball; it’s not just a game—it’s a narrative where every draw tells a different story.

As we approach the denouement of our journey through the electrifying world of Evolution Powerball, we’re left with a few reflections. It’s a game that embodies the human spirit, our affinity for risk, and the eternal hope of triumph. It’s a digital coliseum where fortunes are made, one number at a time. And whether you’re a seasoned player or a curious newcomer, the game welcomes you with open arms.

In conclusion, Evolution Powerball is more than a mere online lottery—it’s a catalyst for excitement, a digital celebration of chance, and, perhaps, a turning point in your gaming odyssey.


**1. Is 에볼루션 파워볼 legal to play?**
It depends on the specific laws and regulations of your jurisdiction. It’s essential to verify the legal status of online gambling in your area before playing.

**2. How do you play Evolution Powerball?**
You select a set of numbers and place your bet. A live draw is conducted, and if the numbers drawn match those you’ve picked, you win.

**3. Can I play Evolution Powerball on my mobile device?**
Yes, most platforms offering Evolution Powerball are designed to be compatible with mobile devices.

**4. What strategies can I use to increase my chances of winning?**
While largely a game of chance, some players employ strategies based on probability, number analysis, or betting systems.

**5. How do I collect winnings from Evolution Powerball?**
Winnings are typically credited to your account on the platform you’re playing on, and you can withdraw according to the site’s policies.…

Continue Reading...

The Importance of Biology in Nursing

Why Biology is Important in Nursing

Biology is a key foundation for nurses. It gives them the knowledge they need to communicate effectively with patients and help them through their health crises.

It also helps nurses understand pharmacology and pathophysiology. Nursing students need to grasp these concepts in order to treat their patients effectively. This article will discuss why biology is important in nursing.

Understanding Life

The study of biology is essential for nursing students to understand the different components that make up the human body and how each system works together. This knowledge can help nurses when treating patients as it enables them to assess the patient and determine which treatments are most appropriate.

Nurses also use their understanding of biology when dealing with patients who have genetic or inherited diseases as these illnesses are passed on through generations. Additionally, biology is important for understanding the basics of medicine which includes pharmacology and pathophysiology.

Biology is the scientific study of life and seeks to untie the mysteries of living things from the working of protein’machines’ to the growth of organisms to the grandeur of entire ecosystems. It is the science that allows people to understand the wonders of this planet and the importance of ensuring its sustainability for future generations. The field of biology is a fascinating and important one and nursing is no exception.

Identifying Genetic Factors

A fundamental aspect of biology is identifying genetic factors that may cause a patient’s condition. A nurse with a strong grasp of biology can use the information they gain from patients to determine treatment options and to rule out certain medical conditions.

In addition, a thorough understanding of biology can help nurses identify the various symptoms that occur in their patients and how these symptoms are related to disease or illness. For example, a cardiovascular advanced practice nurse (APN) can obtain a patient’s family history to understand whether the patient may be predisposed to sudden cardiac death.

Biologists can also work to conserve the natural world by protecting wildlife and preserving their habitats. They can even work to create or test new medications that can help treat sick animals. Despite being commonly thought of as an intimidating subject, biology is actually very important to nursing students because it helps them understand how the body works and how diseases develop.

Maintaining Homeostasis

A fundamental part of nursing is ensuring patients are comfortable and healthy. This involves monitoring blood pressure, body temperature and respiration rates among other things. The ability to do so depends on an in-depth understanding of the physiology and anatomy of the human body. This is why all nurses are required to take a year of Anatomy and Physiology in their nursing programs.

In order to do that, they need to understand how the body maintains homeostasis. This process occurs when a series of negative feedback loops prevent various properties from changing too far from their established set points, like temperature or concentrations of ions and glucose.

Biologists can also play a crucial role in helping to preserve the environment and protect animal species that are endangered or facing extinction. This is why a bachelor’s degree in biology is so important for those who want to make a difference in the world. They can help create sustainable methods of producing food and other natural resources so that they are not overused and destroyed, which could lead to a potential global crisis.

Understanding Disease and Illnesses

When it comes to a nursing career, you’ll find that the field of biology is very important because of what it teaches you about disease and illnesses. Nursing professionals rely on their knowledge of biology when they treat patients that are experiencing health conditions that can’t be treated with medication alone.

Biology is the science that studies life on earth, including the many different types of organisms that exist like bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. Biology focuses on studying the structure and functions of these living things. It also helps nurses understand why some diseases develop and what causes them.

Nurses need to be able to explain these processes to their patients as they go through their health crises. They must also be able to provide empathetic care while providing support and encouragement.

Return to the home screen

Continue Reading...

MLB중계: Connecting Fans Across Oceans and Cultures.

Baseball is more than just a sport; it’s a dance of strategy, power, and precision. Moments cascade like dominos, each play essential to the final outcome. In the heart of this dynamic landscape is the Major League Baseball (MLB), a spectacle of athleticism and competition followed by millions worldwide.

As the crack of the bat echoes in stadiums, fans far and wide search for their dose of this American pastime. This quest for connectivity brings us to the world of live broadcasts, or as known in Korean, ‘MLB중계’. Tuning in to an MLB중계 is not just about keeping up with the scores; it’s about immersing oneself in the narrative of the game, feeling the tension of a full count, and witnessing the split-second decisions that can turn rookies into legends.

These live streams, however, are more than mere transmissions of real-time events; they are a bridge linking cultures through the love of the game. How fascinating it is that, halfway across the world, fans can partake in the same emotions, triumphs, and heartbreaks as those seated in the stadium. It emphasizes the global reach of sports and how a simple game can transcend linguistic and geographical barriers, uniting enthusiasts in a common language of passion and excitement.

But the magic of MLB중계 goes beyond the universal appeal of baseball. It encapsulates the essence of community and connectivity. The shared experiences, the debates over calls, and the collective sighs when the ball veers foul – all these elements kindle a sense of belonging among viewers.

In Korea, where the love for baseball runs deep, accessing MLB중계 is paramount for fans looking to support their national heroes who have made the big leap to the American leagues. Broadcasters cater to this demand with meticulous commentary and in-depth analysis, bringing the game home to Korean audiences who follow every pitch and swing with bated breath.

Now, imagine savoring these moments in crystal-clear quality, with the ability to engage with fellow fans, and perhaps even learn a little more about baseball’s intricacies with each game. That’s the true beauty of a live broadcast; it transforms a spectator into a participant, an onlooker into an analyst.

Without a doubt, live streaming services have revolutionized how we view sports, and MLB중계 is no exception. Whether one’s aim is to analyze the game, follow a favorite player, or just soak in the American sports culture, accessing these broadcasts is akin to possessing a season ticket to every game.

As we swing into the final innings of our exploration, we have seen how MLB중계 captivates and connects, extending the diamond’s drama from the outfield to our very own screens. It’s a testament to technology’s power to share stories and experiences across oceans and time zones, ensuring that no fan is left out of the loop.


Q: What is MLB중계?
A: MLB중계 refers to the live broadcasting of Major League Baseball games, specifically catering to Korean-speaking audiences.

Q: How does MLB중계 benefit fans?
A: MLB중계 allows fans to experience live baseball games, connect with other fans, and stay updated on the sport, regardless of their location.

Q: Can Korean audiences understand the commentary in MLB중계?
A: Yes, the commentary during MLB중계 is usually provided in Korean, making it accessible to the Korean-speaking population.

Q: Are MLB중계 services available online?
A: Yes, many MLB중계 services are available online, allowing fans to watch live baseball games through streaming platforms.

Q: Do MLB중계 streams include player statistics and game analysis?
A: Yes, MLB중계 typically includes comprehensive coverage of the game, including player statistics, replays, and expert analysis to enhance the viewing experience.…

Continue Reading...

Understanding Complex Biology Concepts with the DNA Triangle

Using the DNA Triangle to Explain Complex Biology Concepts

Using the sine and cosine identities, we can calculate the sides and angles of any triangle. We call these identities” trigonometric identities.

Using Krogan06MATRIX, we found that themes in structural SDDI-PPI triangles consist of PPIs with similar function, process, or location involvements. This demonstrates that integrating with other complementary datatypes can help find protein complexes.


The triangle framework provides an intuitive and logical framework to help students understand complex biology concepts. For example, it provides a useful way to discuss meiosis and the DNA triangle: ploidy sits at the chromosomal level; homologous chromosomes reside at the molecular level; and the mechanism of homologous pairing connects the chromosomal and informational levels.

One feature of the triangle method that students might find helpful is its ability to create a universal triangle. This is accomplished by using the model to convert measured Tir into modeled Fr and Moisture availability (Mo). This transformation transforms the spatial distribution of moisture availability isopleths so that their coordinates are invariant for a given image, and thus allows trajectories toward different land surface conditions to be tracked over time without losing their relative positions within the triangle.

The transformation also makes the EF isopleths in Figure 2 relatively insensitive to ambient conditions, allowing trajectories to move toward higher Fr without changing Mo significantly, while still maintaining their position near the warm and cold edges of the triangle. This invariance is especially valuable for tracking changes in soil water content over time.


The central idea of molecular biology is that spontaneous chemical reactions that occur within cells release free energy. Cells use this free energy to drive nonspontaneous chemical reactions that generate proteins. This coupling of reactions is a fundamental aspect of life and, therefore, must be understood.

The chemists who developed the genetic code did so using clever biochemical tricks. They discovered that a certain sequence of bases in the DNA of one cell is translated to an amino acid sequence in the protein chain of another cell. This code enables cells to communicate with each other.

Application of the triangle g framework to topics like meiosis reveals that novices understand these concepts less completely than experts. For example, they often confuse the ploidy corner (C) with the homologous chromosomes and mechanism of homologous pairing corners (M and I). The middle/upper-level textbooks we reviewed describe meiosis mainly at the chromosomal and molecular levels but rarely at the informational level.


Biological processes such as meiosis require knowledge of DNA at different levels. The DNA triangle framework allows students to organize their thoughts about these complex topics.

The second-pass analysis of the interview data and written survey responses focused on codes related to the three apexes of the DNA triangle: C, chromosomal; M, molecular; and I, informational. For example, understanding the concept of ploidy requires knowledge of DNA at both the chromosomal and informational levels. Similarly, understanding homology and the mechanism of homologous pairing relies on knowledge of DNA at both the chromosomal (the physical interaction of complementary base sequences) and molecular (the chemical composition of DNA) levels.

A second finding from this work relates to how the DNA triangle model can be applied to other complex biology topics. For example, understanding the regulation of gene expression requires knowledge of DNA at both the chromosomal, molecular, and informational levels. This is also true when considering the cellular process of photosynthesis, in which energy from sunlight triggers a reaction that converts carbon dioxide and water to oxygen and glucose.


In addition to describing a process in terms of its components, biology also must describe those components at different levels of abstraction. This approach to science is sometimes called “symbolic biology.” The chemistry symbol delta () represents change. You may have seen this symbol used in a formula triangle, where two values are shown side by side and you multiply the bottom one by the top one to get your answer.

The second law of thermodynamics states that spontaneous chemical reactions, like cellular respiration, must release free energy (G). Cells use this free energy to drive non-spontaneous chemical reactions, such as protein synthesis, that cannot occur without an input of free energy.

Our framework of the DNA triangle could help students understand these concepts. For example, a student’s understanding of meiosis requires knowledge of DNA at all three corners of the triangle—chromosomal, molecular, and informational. The chromosomal level is the structure of chromosomes, which can be directly observed; the molecular level is the underlying sequence of nucleotide bases in a particular region of DNA; and the informational level is gene expression, the manifestation of hereditary material.

Return to the home screen

Continue Reading...

Exploring the World of Biology

Biology Ke Janak Kise Khaa Jaata Hai?

Biology ke janak kise khaa jaataa hai?

Biology is the study of the natural world. It is a wide discipline that includes many different subjects. Some of these include chemistry, physics, and mathematics. It also covers many other things, including the environment and human health.

The ‘Father of Biology’ was Aristotle, who arranged biology into parts and made it systematic. Theophrastus and Carl Linnaeus are known for classifying plants and animals. Gregor Mendel was an Austrian who worked on garden pea (Pisum sativum).

History of Biology

From ancient knowledge of nonpoisonous plants to medieval descriptions of bird morphology and the modern discoveries of Gregor Mendel and Francis Crick, biology has fascinated humans. This incisive book explores the major transformations in biological thinking and the enduring scientific concerns that have driven them.

The book examines a biological hierarchy in which each higher level emerges as a result of complex interactions between its constituents. This systemic perspective distinguishes biology from chemistry and physics.

Evolution of Biology

Biology is the study of life, from the molecular level of biomolecules and cells to the planetary scale of ecosystems. Biologists seek to answer fundamental questions about life, such as how a single cell knows how to build a complex organism, how evolution works, and what the limits of the biological species concept are.

Related terms include: biogeography, classification, cladistics, ecology, phenetics, and recognition.

Life Sciences

The life sciences is a massive field that covers the study of every living thing, past and present. It includes everything from cancer genomics to the research and development of pharmaceuticals and medical devices.

A career in the life science industry is about more than just a job, it’s about improving people’s lives by connecting science and technology. This ecosystem is growing rapidly and offers many exciting jobs.

Physical Sciences

Scientists in the physical sciences delve into a wide range of topics. They research everything from the largest scale structure of the universe to how materials behave at a microscopic level.

For example, hydrologists may study water samples from different terrains to record their properties like volume, velocity and pollutant levels. Carl Linnaeus was the first to classify flora and fauna using his binomial nomenclature system.


Biochemistry is the study of living things at the cellular and molecular level. It combines biology and chemistry to investigate the chemical structures of living organisms.

It involves studying the chemistry behind biological processes, such as cellular multiplication and differentiation, enzyme action, genetics, and the chemistry of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, and energy. It also includes the investigation of disease states and their causes.


Genetics is the study of genes and their role in heredity. It also includes the study of traits that are influenced by genes and other factors, such as environment.

The ‘Father of Genetics’ was the Moravian Augustinian pastor Gregor Mendel, who worked on garden pea seeds in the mid-19th century and developed his theories of heredity. His work paved the way for present-day genetics.


Biotechnology is the application of biological knowledge and engineering principles to make useful products. It has been used since the domestication of plants and animals. Cheese is one of the earliest direct applications of biotechnology, produced by adding rennet to milk and using microbes to convert it into curd.

Modern applications of biotechnology are most often through genetic engineering. These techniques can reduce insecticide use, increase crop yields, and improve the nutritional quality of food.


Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms (called microorganisms) that are invisible to the naked eye. The field began with the 17th-century discovery that living forms exist that are not visible to the human eye, credited to Antonie van Leeuwenhoek who made detailed observations under microscopes of his own design.

In pharmaceutical or medical device manufacturing, microbiologists monitor levels of microbial contamination throughout the production process to ensure that finished products are safe for use.


Botany (or plant science) is the scientific study of plants. This broad subject includes morphology, biochemistry, metabolism, development, diseases and evolution.

Theophrastus of Greece is credited with founding botany, and in the XVIII century Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus introduced the binomial system of classification.

Present day research is aimed at providing staple foods, developing new medicines and preserving natural resources. In addition, a great deal of research is now being conducted into plant genetics and molecular biology.


While zoology has “zoo” in its name, this discipline encompasses more than just animal behavior. Students with a degree in zoology can work in a variety of fields, including research, education, conservation and veterinary medicine.

Biology is a broad subject with many unifying themes. It includes field botany, zoology, microbiology and more. The study of life is essential for anyone interested in preserving our natural world.

Return to the home screen

Continue Reading...

Requirements for a Medical Degree

Biology 4 Year Plan – What Are the Requirements For a Medical Degree?

Students should check the admissions requirements for the medical schools to which they are planning on applying to. These requirements may vary significantly from school to school.

Biology majors should complete a full sequence of the introductory lab courses, MCDB 1AL through MCDB 1BL/EEMB 2L, as well as one semester of physics with lab (12 credits total). Many professional schools consider this to be a “full year” of laboratory work.


Depending on the career objective, some professional schools require specific upper division courses such as one semester of general chemistry with lab, organic chemistry, biochemistry or a course in parasitology. Other requirements include a year of college-level mathematics (e.g. CHEM 109, MATH 009A-MATH 009B or MATH 009C), and lower-division mathematics and science courses which meet prerequisites in cellular biology, molecular biology, ecology, physiology, genetics and evolution.

Usually, most of the 36 upper-division units required for the major are taken in biology courses. However, with advisor approval, a limited number of courses in other departments may be used to fulfill these requirements. These courses must have a strong biological relevance. The BS degree requires 16 units of related courses, while the BA degree requires only 16. Exceptions to these course requirements must be approved by an advisor.


For students who plan to pursue a medical degree, or for those who intend to enter the biomedical or pharmaceutical industries, an understanding of the chemical principles that govern biological function is important. For these students, a strong background in biology is combined with a more extensive set of chemistry courses. This includes general and organic chemistry, and biochemistry. In addition, one year of college-level physics (e.g., CHEM 005 or MCBL 121A and 123L), hematology (BIOL 157) and statistics are recommended.

Considerable latitude is allowed in selecting upper-division courses to complete the 36 units required for the major. Students should meet regularly with a faculty advisor to select these courses and to plan a program that will prepare them for postgraduate study or specific career objectives.


The biology program requires a minimum of one semester of general chemistry (with lab) and one semester of organic chemistry (12 credits total). Many students take more than this, however, because it is recommended or required for their career path or post-graduate plans.

The introductory biology courses (BIOL 005A, BIOL 05LA, and BIOL 05C) provide a broad overview of processes at the cellular, organismal, and ecological levels. This is followed by upper-division courses that focus on unifying principles within biology.

Students who plan to get a Multiple Subjects Credential and teach at the elementary level should select courses that will enable them to meet the subject-matter assessment requirement. Those who wish to pursue professional studies in allied health areas will probably need additional lower-division and/or upper-division courses, as well as a course or courses on nutrition.


A breadth of experience is important for students seeking a career in biology. Students pursuing medical or healthcare careers take internships in hospitals and clinics, laboratories, or with allied health groups. Others find employment in wildlife management, environmental planning and natural resource conservation.

Those pursuing a career in teaching may intern as laboratory assistants or teach high school science. Research internships are available at both the Boyd Deep Canyon Desert Research Center and White Mountain Research Station and are supervised by a UCR faculty member. Students who complete these internships are eligible to participate in the RISE summer research program.

Students interested in pursuing an internship should attend the department’s All About Internship Workshop or Virtual Workshop. These workshops provide information on the benefits of an internship, how to locate one using UCR Handshake and how to receive credit for an internship.

Field Experiences

Biology is one of the most popular science majors. It allows for flexible specialization and research experience while providing a solid foundation in theoretical and hands-on laboratory studies of living systems, their interactions with the environment, and their evolutionary relationships.

A student specializing in Cellular and Molecular Biology (CMDB) will explore the structure and function of the sub-units that make up cells, as well as how they interact to form larger organisms. Students who choose this field will often go on to medical school or related fields such as biochemistry, microbiology, and developmental biology.

Students interested in pursuing an Honors thesis should discuss their plans with the Biology Department adviser early in their junior year. Depending on the topic of the thesis, two 4-credit semesters of undergraduate research may be used to fulfill the three lab requirements of the major.

Leap back to the main screen

Continue Reading...

Electron Transfer in Photosynthesis

The Biology Z Scheme

The biology z scheme is the energy diagram that describes electron transfer in the “light reactions” of plant photosynthesis. It shows that the molecules at the top can easily transfer their electrons to those below them, which is an easy “downhill” reaction energy-wise.

H2- and O2-evolving photocatalyst powders with and without RGO were characterized in a media-free Z-schematic water splitting system. The system was active for both [Co(bpy)3]3+/2+ and Fe3+/2+ redox couples via interparticle electron transfer.

Light Reactions

The light reactions of photosynthesis transform solar energy into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Two protein complexes, called PSI and PSII, use special pigment molecules to absorb and transfer electrons. When a molecule in the photosynthetic reaction center absorbs a photon, it is excited into an energy state called the charge separation state. This changes its redox potential, which is a measure of how easy it is for the molecule to pass an electron to another.

The biology z scheme is an energy diagram showing the sequence of electron transfer during the light reactions of photosynthesis. The arrows represent electron flow, and the vertical energy scale shows each molecular species’s reduction potential. The lower a molecule’s reduction potential, the easier it is for it to accept an electron from the higher molecular species below it. This is why the arrows in the diagram point downhill, energy-wise. The light reactions produce reducing power, ATP, and oxygen gas. The next step, the dark reactions, convert this reducing power into chemical energy to form sugar molecules.

Dark Reactions

The Z-scheme is an energy diagram for electron transfer during the light reactions of photosynthesis. It shows the reducing power of each of the carriers (reaction centers) on a vertical scale. The ones on the top have a more negative reduction potential and therefore can donate their electrons to those below them more easily.

When a photon is absorbed by PSI, it excites P680 to the more oxidized form, P680*. This forms an electron-carrier pair with cytochrome bf. Electrons can then pass from PSI to cytochrome bf in the ETC, or back to PSI in a cycle of electron flow.

The ETC is what produces ATP during photosynthesis. It is a non-cyclic version of the Light Reactions. This non-cyclic photophosphorylation was experimentally discovered by Robert Emerson and his coworkers in 1957. Robin Hill and Fay Bendall published the theoretical version of this scheme in 1960. This work inspired the development of ‘artificial photosynthesis’ which can be used to produce solar fuels such as hydrogen gas.

Electron Transfer

The electron transport chain (also known as the photosynthetic or respiratory redox loop) is a series of molecules that transfer electrons between different species to generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient. During these reactions a number of oxidizing and reducing species are formed in succession.

The diagram below, called the Photosynthetic Z Scheme, illustrates the sequence of these steps in the light reactions of photosynthesis. Each step involves both an oxidation and a reduction, because electrons cannot be gained unless they are lost.

The arrows representing the absorption of energy by reaction center chlorophyll molecules at PS-I are drawn with their oxidized and reduced forms to demonstrate that the reduction is dependent on the oxidation. This “bucket brigade” mechanism is the key to establishing an continuous flow of electrons between water and NADP+ via PS-I and PS-II. This is the basis of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, and is one example of the many biological processes that are quantum mechanical in nature.


ATP (adenosine 5′-triphosphate) is the “energy currency” of all living cells. It acts like a tiny battery, storing energy when it is not needed and releasing it instantly when a cell needs it.

The biology z scheme shows the sequence of electron transfer steps that produce ATP in the “light reactions” of plant photosynthesis. Each molecule is marked on the energy scale according to its ability to transfer an electron to the one above it (i.e., to reduce it).

Molecules at the top of the scale easily pass an electron to molecules below them because they are at a lower energy level. The electrons then move down the chain and release energy each time a phosphate group is added to ADP. As the phosphate groups are attached to ADP they become ATP. The ATP molecule releases its energy to power all cellular processes, including muscle contraction, circulation of blood and locomotion. It is also used to make the multi-thousand types of proteins that are necessary for life.

Push to see more details

Continue Reading...